The Writing Center @ The University of Wisconsin - Madison
The Writer's Handbook
Chicago/Turabian Documentation: Subsequent note for a source

Chicago/Turabian Subsequent Notes

Once you have spelled out a source's information in full in its first note, all subsequent notes take a shorter form.

In addition to the shorter form, the Chicago Manual and Turabian identify rules for using the Latin abbreviation "Ibid." when you refer to one source twice (or more) in a row.

Shortened form

When citing a source you have already noted in full, use a shorter form so your reader knows what earlier source you are referring to.

Same work and author; only source by that author

If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author's last name and page reference:

First note

8. Raúl Sánchez, "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 243.

Subsequent note

22. Sánchez, 265.

Two or more works by same author

If you are using two or more works by that author, indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference.

First note

1. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

Subsequent note

23. Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, 121.

Two authors with the same last name

If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.

Latin abbreviations

When a note refers to the same work as the previous note, you can use "ibid." to refer back to the previous source. This is acceptable even if several pages of text separate the two notes.

"Ibid." is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, which means "in the same place."

The abbreviation "Ibid." is followed by a page number if the page from which the second reference is taken is different from the first. If the pages are the same, no number is necessary.

Example notes

Note that the first source is given a shortened form in note 3, then referred to with "ibid." in notes 4 and 5.

1. Colleen Dunlavy, "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" in Major Problems in American Business History, ed. Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton (New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006), 260.

2. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

3. Dunlavy, 261.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 262.